How to Learn Persian Grammar with Free Online Resources
Persian is a beautiful and rich language that belongs to the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European family. It has a long history of literature and poetry, and it is spoken by about 110 million people in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, and other regions. If you want to learn Persian, you will need to master its grammar, which is different from English in many ways.
Fortunately, there are many free online resources that can help you learn Persian grammar. Here are some of them:
Higher Persian Grammar by D. C. Phillott. This is a classic book that covers the essentials of Persian grammar in a clear and systematic way. It was published in 1919, but it is still relevant and useful for learners of modern Persian. You can download it for free from the Internet Archive[^1^].
Elementary Persian Grammar by L. P. Elwell-Sutton. This is another book that provides a simple grammatical framework for contemporary written Persian. It is based on the characteristic idiom and phraseology of the language as it is used in newspapers, magazines, and novels. It also introduces the Persian script from the first lesson. You can access it online from Cambridge Core[^2^].
Persian Grammar by Dr. Fritz Rosen. This is a concise and practical guide to Persian grammar that covers the main points of syntax, morphology, and phonology. It also includes exercises and a vocabulary list. It was published in 1898, but it is still a valuable resource for beginners and intermediate learners of Persian. You can download it for free from the Internet Archive[^3^].
These are just some of the free online resources that can help you learn Persian grammar. There are many more available on the web, such as websites, blogs, podcasts, videos, and apps. You can also join online communities and forums where you can interact with native speakers and other learners of Persian. Learning Persian grammar can be challenging, but also rewarding and fun.
One of the most important aspects of Persian grammar is the use of the ezafe. The ezafe is a short vowel sound that connects a noun to its modifier, such as an adjective, a possessive pronoun, or a relative clause. For example, in the phrase \"the big house\", the ezafe is pronounced after the word \"big\" and before the word \"house\". The ezafe can also be used to form complex noun phrases and genitive constructions. For example, in the phrase \"the book of the teacher\", the ezafe is pronounced after the word \"book\" and before the word \"teacher\". The ezafe can have different forms depending on the gender and number of the noun it modifies.
Another important aspect of Persian grammar is the verb system. Persian verbs have two stems: present and past. The present stem is used to form the present tense, the subjunctive mood, and the imperative mood. The past stem is used to form the past tense, the past participle, and the passive voice. Persian verbs also have two aspects: simple and perfect. The simple aspect expresses an action that is incomplete or ongoing, while the perfect aspect expresses an action that is completed or has a result. Persian verbs also have different moods and voices that express the attitude and relationship of the speaker to the action.
A third important aspect of Persian grammar is the word order. Persian is a subject-object-verb (SOV) language, which means that the verb usually comes at the end of the sentence. However, Persian also allows for some flexibility in word order, depending on factors such as emphasis, contrast, and topicalization. For example, in a normal declarative sentence, the subject comes before the object, but in a question sentence, the subject can come after the object. Similarly, in a normal sentence, the adjective comes after the noun it modifies, but in an emphatic sentence, the adjective can come before the noun. 061ffe29dd